The blockchain revolution: audit efficiency & trust in sustainably certified supply chains

This report was a collaboration between Provenance, the Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials (RSB) and the ISEAL Alliance which includes Fairtrade, MSC, FSC, LEAF, RSPO, Rainforest Alliance, Better Cotton Initiative, UTZ and Bonsucro. The report documents ideas for how certifiers can leverage blockchain technology to reduce audit inefficiency, create a single source of truth for chain of custody (CoC) tracking and support sustainability data reporting.

Are you a certifier interested in using blockchain technology to increase trust? Get in touch here.


When it comes to providing trust in supply chains, organisations are facing significant challenges: supply chains are becoming more complex, audits are increasingly costly, and the relevance of some standards organisations is being questioned by businesses launching their own schemes. Mike Coupe, CEO of Sainsbury’s, in describing a certification scheme, said it “might have been fit for purpose 25 years ago, but we’re in a new world with new technology”. Although technology is not the cure for everything, it is certainly part of the way forward for the certification industry.

Over the last 9 months, project partners Provenance and the Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials (RSB) have been working alongside the ISEAL Alliance to explore the opportunities that blockchain technology offers to sustainability certifications and partners, enabling ISEAL members to better understand this technology and capitalise on it.

If you are certifier looking to learn more about how blockchain works then read our FAQ

About Project partners

The Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials (RSB) is a global, multi-stakeholder independent organisation that drives the development of a new world bioeconomy through sustainability solutions and collaborative partnerships. The RSB is directly engaged with sector pioneers who are seeking solutions for a new generation of products that are free of fossil fuels, and offers the world’s most trusted, peer-reviewed, global certification standard for sustainable biomaterials, biofuels and biomass production. The standard contributes to food security, rural development and restoration of ecosystems. Visit for more information.

Provenance is a technology startup and social enterprise creating tools to bring a new digital dimension to products. Enabled by mobile, blockchain and open data, their software helps progressive companies gain a competitive edge with transparency and traceability. Provenance enables any physical thing to come with a digital passport – linking materials with proven claims, providing a platform for gathering and creating collaborative content and data related to supply chains, and tracking items through even the most complex chains of custody. Visit for more information.

The ISEAL Alliance is a global membership association for credible sustainability standard systems, and provides tools, training, events, resources and a community to help shape an effective standards movement. ISEAL supports cooperation between our members and others to strengthen the effectiveness of that movement. Visit for more information.

The project was funded by the ISEAL Alliance Innovations Fund which seeks to support the best innovations that help sustainability standards to deliver more value to different stakeholders and to be more effective at driving improvement over time and at scale.

About Project partners

“The Blockchain Revolution: Application to Sustainably Certified Supply Chains” is a 9-month pilot project aimed to demonstrate what opportunities blockchain technology can offer to sustainability standard systems and sustainably certified supply chains.

In its rationale, the project understands that blockchain is a disruptive technology with the potential to solve numerous challenges for sustainability certification and dramatically increase supply chain transparency and efficiencies. It however also acknowledges that blockchain is a new, complex technology that can be applied to numerous problems and that requires significant time, focus and investment to be fully developed and deployed at scale.

Within these limitations, the project set out to achieve its goal in three progressive phases:

Table of blockchain project approach with certifiers

If you’re not familiar with blockchain technology you can check out our introduction and FAQ.

Defining the hypotheses

During a two-day workshop in September 2017, 15 ISEAL member organisations were introduced to blockchain technology and participated in supply chain mapping and group ideation on the role of blockchain in addressing existing challenges.

Workshop with Provenance and Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials discussing blockchain

Roundtable on Sustainable Biomaterials (RSB) and Provenance kick-off the two day workshop including Fairtrade, MSC, Rainforest Alliance and others

The outcome was a series of hypotheses statements to test where blockchain could be useful. These were grouped into five key areas: chain of custody, data collaboration, financial flows, trust in standards, and impact monitoring.

Upon further discussion with ISEAL members, it was decided that two areas in particular, chain of custody and data collaboration , would be examined in more detail.

Selecting the pilot supply chain

To research the hypotheses, the team chose to visit UPM Biofuels Bioverno supply chain. The supply chain was selected due to its applicability and practicality. The supply chain is relatively simple (one country) and holds multiple sustainability certifications. Moreover, UPM Biofuels were interested in the potential of blockchains.


In this section of the report we outline 3 opportunities for how blockchain could be applied to improve the efficiency and credibility of certifications. These ideas for how to apply blockchain have been formed through interviews with certifiers and businesses and a research trip, in which the Provenance team observed a dual RSB and ISCC audit at UPM Biofuels, an RSB-certified biofuel producer.

Auditor at UPM Biofuels

Audit taking place at UPM biofuels

1. Reducing audit inefficiency


Today the number of certification schemes has grown to over 400. While there is differentiation among schemes, the shear proliferation has created overlap among requirements. This overlap has led to the duplication of audit efforts as it is common for supply chain actors to participate in more than one certification scheme.

UPM Biofuels, for example, is certified through three distinct schemes: RSB, ISCC and the Finnish national scheme, with 80%+ overlap on the requirements of those schemes. They have opted to take part in three schemes to satisfy the requirements of different customers and prove industry best practice with regards to sustainability. However, each scheme is audited separately, and the claims auditors verify reside in siloed databases that do not talk to each other.

Standards organisations, auditors, and licensees, are aware that double auditing is inefficient and have started collaborating on audits to help save time and money. At UPM Biofuels, the ISCC and RSB audits were held together for the first time this year. RSB also offers joint audits or ‘top ups’ to businesses who are already certified by Bonsucro, FSC or SAN. Similarly Flocert – Fairtrade’s auditing body – provide joint audits for businesses wanting to be additionally UTZ or 4C certified. These examples of collaboration are indicative of the move to cut down on unnecessary audit efforts and also demonstrate a willingness among certifiers to collaborate.


As there are already examples of cooperation, audits present a good opportunity for blockchain technology to benefit the certification ecosystem. As an extension to current approaches, we believe it would be beneficial to use a public blockchain as the backbone of a collaborative database across certification bodies.

The concept of a microclaim – a granular, independent, digital, cryptographically secure, verified claim – stored on a blockchain is important for this approach. In the context of the UPM Biofuels audit, we identified audit points around management systems, material storage, permits and employee records as good candidates to become reusable microclaims.

  1. Auditor A requests documents from the auditee about an audit point e.g “valid employee records”
  2. Auditor A submits a microclaim to a public blockchain, for example:
    about: Farmer Bob
    subject: Employee records
    state: Valid
    signature: Auditor A
    supporting: Link to supporting documents
  3. Auditor B wants to verify employee records
  4. Auditee provides a link to the microclaim created by Auditor A for Auditor B to check. Actual employee records do not need to be provided again.
How blockchain can increase efficiency of audit with microclaims

Diagram 1: demonstrating the flow of audit for two overlapping standards using micro claims

Sharing microclaims across a common database would reduce the time taken to audit a company, minimising overlap and providing auditors with more context when auditing a new business. Although general context was available for auditors visiting the UPM Biofuels supply chain for the first time, there is minimal time for them to review this information and examine specific points of interest. This meant that the auditors required a 30 minute to one hour session at each different location to familiarise themselves with the supply chain and specific areas of interest before beginning the audit. Reducing the amount of time taken to gain context on specific concerns would benefit auditors by providing them with time to investigate additional data more pertinent to sustainability.

2. A single source of truth for chain of custody tracking


During sustainability certification audits, one of the auditor’s main tasks is to guarantee the consistency of data along the supply chain. Data about the flow of goods is usually stored on a database private to each node, meaning the same transaction exists in the supplier’s system as an outbound movement of goods and in the customer’s system as received goods.

From our research we have learnt how time-consuming it is for supply chain actors and auditors to track batches of material through supply chains and reconcile the inbound and outbound quantities of products throughout the CoC. Unlike many organisations, UPM Biofuels uses an internal CoC system, however even with a purpose built system it still took time to explain how the system works, collect data in the auditor’s desired format and provide evidence for each sample batch.

Reconciling data at UPM head office

UPM employees search for correct outbound goods figures, in order to reconcile with the data the auditor had seen at UPM’s head office.


To overcome this challenge, blockchains could provide a single source of truth for the movement of goods across all actors in a supply chain. Essentially, if items moving through the chain could be tracked on one platform, businesses could easily prove claims to auditors and business partners.

However, when considering a single source of truth system, it’s important to understand the risks linked to commercial confidentiality. Just as these challenges are present in centralised solutions such as PalmTrace by RSPO and Nabisy by BLE, they need to be tackled in a decentralised setup. While centralised systems rely on trust in the central operator, blockchains use cryptography to hide sensitive data.

UPM chain of custody using blockchain

Diagram showing blockchain-backed chain of custody system for UPM Biofuels

I. Tier one: simple commitment by both actors

Encrypted timestamping using digital signatures could be implemented to remove the need for records to be reconciled. This would enable the following scenario:

  1. Supplier delivers x tonnes of sustainable material to manufacturer
  2. Supplier creates a digital file specifying the type and quantity of the goods delivered, and signs it cryptographically
  3. Manufacturer inspects the goods delivered and attached digital file, and signs the file cryptographically to acknowledge receipt of goods
  4. A fingerprint of the signed document is published on a blockchain, giving it a timestamp and making it immutable
  5. During the audit, the auditor can retrieve the proofs from the blockchain and compare them with records in both the customer’s and the supplier’s systems

This system would enable security advantages over the current system as actors cannot modify their claims after they’ve been entered into the system and digital signatures would guarantee the authenticity of the claims. However, limitations include a lack of flexibility, as the system would not support proving complex claims, such as the absence of double spending. To overcome this limitation we can look to zero knowledge proofs.

II. Tier two: zero knowledge proofs

With the example of the privacy-focused cryptocurrency Zcash, blockchains are being upgraded with advanced privacy tools. In particular, zero knowledge proofs used by Zcash itself make it possible to hide transaction details while still enforcing certain rules, such as preventing double spending, or proving an aggregated statement without revealing individual values.

An example application is the evaluation of production yields, which can be highly confidential information. For a given industrial process which outputs certified products only if fed with certified material, an incentive to mix certified inputs with non-certified inputs exists, effectively “laundering” non-certified material. The way to detect such fraud is to compare the annual average yield of the process to standard values – a high yield constituting a red flag. Zero knowledge proofs could be used in this case to prove that the yield is below a given value without revealing processing volumes. In such a setup, actors transfer digital assets associated to the movement of physical goods, with all transaction details being encrypted. Based on those transactions, a third party can verify that the yield was lower than a certain value, without the yield itself being revealed. A similar process can be used to prove that a batch originates from a certain area without revealing the exact supplier.

While we find this approach very exciting, it is important to recognise that the underlying cryptographic tools are still nascent. They are however very good candidates to underpin the next generation of privacy-preserving digital services.

Poster at UPM showing importance of trust in supply chain

Poster at UPM Kymi Pulp Mill

3. Improving sustainability data reporting


During audits, sustainability certifiers require companies to report on key metrics in order to prove compliance with standards. In the context of the European regulation on biofuels, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have to be measured along the supply chain and remain within given limits for the material to be certified. Calculations based on European Union (EU) regulation take into account many parameters covering processing, storage, and transport. At UPM we observed how GHG emission calculations are calculated separately by each node in the chain. Calculating emissions in this way leads at best to time-consuming verification during audits, and in riskier supply chains this could result in mistakes or fraud.


Considering the GHG emissions example and taking advantage of an existing privacy-preserving chain of custody system as envisioned earlier in this report, GHG emissions could be calculated in real time, in an automated way. This would work in the following way:

  • The sustainability standard uploads its framework for GHG emissions calculation as a smart contract running on a public blockchain
  • The smart contract is connected to the chain of custody records from the different actors in a supply chain, taking the movement of goods as an input
  • The sustainability standard can access the smart contract and update standard values if necessary
  • The GHG emissions data is now easily shareable with customers and other actors in the supply chain
Road on the way to UPM Pulp Mill in Finland

Travelling to UPM Kymi Pulp Mill in Finland

This solution could be applied to many other scenarios. For example, certifiers could develop similar smart contracts and require companies to input data on employee wages, waste, water quality, biodiversity and more. In future, this ecosystem could be further developed to incorporate other services such as supply chain finance or existing certifications.


Overall, we see that there is potential for blockchain technology to support sustainability standards and make audits more objective and efficient.

Throughout our research we have kept key hypotheses from the September workshop in mind. These related to how blockchain technology could enable certifiers to have verification of chain of custody, cryptographic data privacy and increased data collaboration. Although the scope of this project has not allowed us to draw firm conclusions, we have further defined our hypotheses and believe each of the three suggestions would provide interesting test cases for a follow-up pilot project to be developed in the future.

Many of the introduced technologies are in their infancy – blockchains and zero knowledge proofs are still experimental, but have been under heavy development recently due to growing interest. However, there are still huge benefits that can be achieved today – simple steps such as connecting an existing certification to the blockchain, using digital signatures whenever possible or experimenting with public blockchain based timestamping are already possible.

Are you a certifier interested in using blockchain technology to increase trust? Get in touch here.

With thanks to:
Arianna Baldo, Global Business Development Support, RSB
Rolf Hogan, Executive Director, RSB
UPM Biofuels


Blockchain – Check out our introduction and FAQ to learn more.
Cryptography – Cryptography or cryptology is the practice and study of techniques for secure communication. It is also known as the art of writing or solving codes.
Greenhouse gas (GHG) – Any gases which are responsible for causing the greenhouse effect. The most well known greenhouse gas is carbon dioxide.
International Sustainability and Carbon Certification (ISCC) – A global standards organisation that contributes to the implementation of environmentally, socially and economically sustainable production and use of all kinds of biomass in global supply chains.
Zero knowledge proofs – Cryptographic tools enabling a prover to convince a verifier about a statement while keeping as much of the data private. For example, the prover could convince the verifier that they are older than 18 without revealing their actual age.